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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-2

Domestic violence during COVID-19 pandemic: An issue that needs comprehensive attention and intervention

1 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran
2 Institute of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
3 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran; Department of Nursing, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden, Europe

Date of Submission15-Jan-2022
Date of Acceptance15-Feb-2022
Date of Web Publication25-Feb-2022

Correspondence Address:
Amir H Pakpour
Department of Nursing, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden, Europe.

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/shb.shb_32_22

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How to cite this article:
Alimoradi Z, Lin CY, Pakpour AH. Domestic violence during COVID-19 pandemic: An issue that needs comprehensive attention and intervention. Asian J Soc Health Behav 2022;5:1-2

How to cite this URL:
Alimoradi Z, Lin CY, Pakpour AH. Domestic violence during COVID-19 pandemic: An issue that needs comprehensive attention and intervention. Asian J Soc Health Behav [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Jun 25];5:1-2. Available from: http://www.healthandbehavior.com/text.asp?2022/5/1/1/338379

Elimination of violence against women is an important public health issue[1] and has been included as one key goal in the Sustainable Development Program.[2] Worldwide, 30% of women experience physical or sexual violence by their partner during their lifetime.[3] Such violence is possibly be increased during crises, including pandemics and natural disasters.[4],[5],[6] At present, the prevalence of COVID-19 is one of the emerging global challenges in the management of infectious diseases that endanger international public health.[7] The spread of infectious diseases not only affects the physical health of patients but also the mental health and well-being of noninfected people. Moreover, the threatening prevalence of new infectious diseases can increase anxiety, depression, and stress in the general population, especially when the new infectious disease is unpredictable and the governments have uncertainty about how to control the disease. The findings show that a high prevalence of mental health problems was associated with the prevalence of COVID-19.[8] At a time when current treatment for COVID-19 worldwide is primarily focused on infection control, effective vaccination, and accelerating the treatment, the psychosocial aspects and the impacts of these conditions on different psychosocial aspects of individual, family, and life need further attention.[9],[10]

As the virus continues to spread globally, it brings with it new stresses, including physical and mental health risks, isolation and loneliness, closure of many schools and businesses, economic vulnerabilities, and job losses. In addition, children and their mothers are particularly vulnerable to domestic violence. Domestic violence refers to a wide range of violations that occur indoors.[11] Domestic violence (including intimate partner violence, child abuse, and adult abuse) and sexual violence can increase during and after major disasters or crises.[4],[5],[6] Like the previous epidemics including Ebola and Zika,[12] the COVID-19 pandemic can exacerbate domestic violence by changing individual, social, and economic living conditions.[13] Home quarantine policies have been widely used to reduce the prevalence of the COVID-19 virus, with an estimated at least 3 billion people worldwide staying at home[14] and 142 countries enforcing stay-at-home requirements.[15] These policies have raised a number of concerns, particularly about their impact on developing countries and gender equality. Researchers and international organizations have argued that policies to stay at home increase violence against women.[4],[16],[17] Recent studies have shown that sexual violence (partner) has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic.[18],[19] In addition to women, children may also be exposed to parental violence.[20]

Given the current situation, health policymakers, health-care providers, and economic and social actors need to address the issue of domestic violence screening. Accordingly, the design and implementation of immediate action on reducing domestic violence are urgently needed. Addressing the dangers of violence that threaten women and children during the pavilion and related constraints is one of the important issues that must be addressed in an effort to contain the pandemic.

  References Top

Krug EG, Mercy JA, Dahlberg LL, Zwi AB. The world report on violence and health. Lancet 2002;360:1083-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
United Nations. Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. New York: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs; 2015.  Back to cited text no. 2
WHO. Violence; Prevention. Global Status Report on Road Safety. Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2013.  Back to cited text no. 3
Bradbury-Jones C, Isham L. The pandemic paradox: The consequences of COVID-19 on domestic violence. J Clin Nurs 2020;29:2047-9.  Back to cited text no. 4
Parkinson D, Zara C. The hidden disaster: Domestic violence in the aftermath of natural disaster. Aust J Emerg Manage 2013;28:28-35.  Back to cited text no. 5
Usher K, Bhullar N, Durkin J, Gyamfi N, Jackson D. Family violence and COVID-19: Increased vulnerability and reduced options for support. Int J Ment Health Nurs 2020;29:549-52.  Back to cited text no. 6
Xiao H, Zhang Y, Kong D, Li S, Yang N. Social capital and sleep quality in individuals who self-isolated for 14 days during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in january 2020 in China. Med Sci Monit 2020;26:e923921.  Back to cited text no. 7
Gao J, Zheng P, Jia Y, Chen H, Mao Y, Chen S, et al. Mental health problems and social media exposure during COVID-19 outbreak. PLoS One 2020;15:e0231924.  Back to cited text no. 8
Dong L, Hu S, Gao J. Discovering drugs to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Drug Discov Ther 2020;14:58-60.  Back to cited text no. 9
Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 2020;395:497-506.  Back to cited text no. 10
Saffari M, Arslan SA, Yekaninejad MS, Pakpour AH, Zaben FA, Koenig HG. Factors associated with domestic violence against women in Iran: An exploratory multicenter community-based study. J Interpers Violence 2017:886260517713224. Epub ahead of print.  Back to cited text no. 11
Cepeda Z, Arenas C, Vilardo V, Hilton E, Dico-Young T, Green C. Dominican Republic Gender Analysis: A study of the impact of the Zika virus on women, girls, boys and men. 2017. Available from: https://oxfamilibrary.openrepository.com/handle/10546/620261. [Last accessed on 2022 Jan 10].  Back to cited text no. 12
Fraser E. Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Violence against Women and Girls. UKAid VAWG Helpdesk Research Report; 2020. p. 284.  Back to cited text no. 13
Hall BJ, Tucker JD. Surviving in place: The coronavirus domestic violence syndemic. Asian J Psychiatr 2020;53:102179.  Back to cited text no. 14
Hale T, Angrist N, Goldszmidt R, Kira B, Petherick A, Phillips T, et al. A global panel database of pandemic policies (Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker). Nat Hum Behav 2021;5:529-38.  Back to cited text no. 15
Buller AM, Peterman A, Ranganathan M, Bleile A, Hidrobo M, Heise L. A mixed-method review of cash transfers and intimate partner violence in low-and middle-income countries. World Bank Res Obs 2018;33:218-58.  Back to cited text no. 16
Peterman A, Potts A, O'Donnell M, Thompson K, Shah N, Oertelt-Prigione S, et al. Pandemics and Violence against Women and Children. Washington, DC: Center for Global Development; 2020.  Back to cited text no. 17
Agüero JM. COVID-19 and the rise of intimate partner violence. World Dev 2021;137:105217.  Back to cited text no. 18
Roesch E, Amin A, Gupta J, García-Moreno C. Violence against women during COVID-19 pandemic restrictions. BMJ 2020;369:m1712.  Back to cited text no. 19
Guedes A, Bott S, Garcia-Moreno C, Colombini M. Bridging the gaps: A global review of intersections of violence against women and violence against children. Glob Health Action 2016;9:31516.  Back to cited text no. 20


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